Welcome to Hiroshi Fukurai's
Professor of Sociology & Legal Studies
1156 High Street,
University of California, Santa Cruz,
Santa Cruz, CA 95064
Office: 337 College
(office) 831-3518 (fax)
Back to UCSC Sociology
Henoko in Okinawa, Japan, 2014 -- Projected U.S. Marine Airfield Site & Okinawan Protesters
U.S. Military Bases in Okinawa & Pictures of Helicopter Crash at Okinawa International University
Hiroshi Fukurai is Professor of Legal Studies and Sociology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. He won the UCSC's Chancellor's Achievement Award for Diversity and gave a keynote speach at the EOP's graduation ceremony in 2014. He was also nominated for Excellence in Teaching Award in 2012 and selected as the Favorite Faculty Member by Stevenson College graduating students in 2013.
His expertise includes citizen participation in the justice system, international law, and East Asian law and politics. Professor Fukurai also teaches advanced quantitative methods and survey and field ressearch. His current research explores a political utility of lay adjudication to create an effective deterrent and investigative mechanism against the corporate & governmental abuse of power.
He has more than 100 publications including scholarly articles, law reviews, op-ed pieces, magazine articles, and books. His seven books (three forthcoming in 2014) are indicative of his commitment to adjudicative justice and equality in law; Race in the Jury Box: Affirmative Action in Jury Selection (2003), Anatomy of the McMartin Child Molestation Case (2001), Race and the Jury: Racial Disenfranchisement and the Search for Justice (1993, Gustavus Meyers Human Rights Award), and Common Destiny: Japan and the U.S. in the Global Age (1990).
His scholarly work on critizen legal participation has been deeply affected by his long-time engagement as a ury trial consultant in American courts. His multidisciplinary and collaborative research was further inspired by international colleagues in the Law and Society Association (LSA), especially in two Collaborative Research Networks (CRN) of “Lay Participation in the Justice System” and “East Asian Law and Society.”
He was voted into a prestigeous LSA Board of Trustee in 2010. He served on a LSA editorial board of the Law and Society Review, helped co-organize the East Asian Law and Society CRN, and was one of three organizers to hold the Inaugural East Asian Law and Society Conference in Hong Kong in February 2010, the Second Conference in Seoul, Korea in September-October 2011, and the Third Confence in Shanghai, China in March 2013, in which more than 200 scholars, legal practitioners, and researchers gathered from the U.S., Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Australia, Singapore, India, Canada, Iran, England, Germany, and other countries in the world. He is currently serving as a co-editor of a book volume on East Asian legal systems and procedures, and two original books on Japan's civil jury system and Fukushima nuclear disaster respectively. He is also one of key organizers for the Fourth East Asian Law and Society Conference to be held in Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan in August 2015
Recent Conference Presentation (UC Hastings Law School, Sept. 7, 2012)
Japan's Judicial Reform Proposal & Its Impact 10 Years Later
Recent Grassroots Presentation (Research Group on Jury Trial at Kokugakuin University, Law School in Tokyo, Japan, Jul. 21, 2014)
Japan's Civil Jury Trials in Okinawa & Remedial Policies for Fukushima Radiation Victims (in Japanese)
Legal System Reform in Japan, University of Victoria, Law School, Canada, November, 2010
Lay Adjudication Systems in the World (in Japanese ), Toyo University, Tokyo Japan, July, 2008
Recent Newspaper Articles (in Japanese)
Saga Shimbun (8/21/2012)
Shinshu Mainichi Shimbun (8/22/2012)
Recent Interview on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
KPFA in Berkeley, April 21, 2011
Click for C.V.
- Global Jury Project
-- Advent of new citizen participation in the justice system in East and Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, the entire continent of Africa, and Central and South America
- Japan's Twin Systems of Lay Participation
- Saiban-in Seido (Lay Assessor or Quasi-Jury) System
- New Kensatsu Shinsakai (New Prosecutorial Reveiw Commission (PRC) or Japan's New Grand Jury System).
- People's Republic of China's Systems of Lay Participation
- Lay Assessor System
- People's Supervisor System .
- Korea's All-Citizen Jury System
- Lay Judge Trial of Military Personnel and Dependents
- Okinawa, Japan, concerning both American military and Japanese self-defense personnel
- South Korea's jury trial and jury reforms in 2013 to eliminate optional jury adjudication for certain heinous crimes
- Lay participation as deterrent to future military crimes
- Possible revision of the Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) in Japan & South Korea, concerning the immunity and the unilateral imposition of extraterritorial rights given to military personnel
Mexico's Attempt to Re-Introduce Jury Trial
- 2008 Federal Judicial Reform with the introduction of basic criminal justice concepts
except jury trials
- Adversarial proceeding, presumption of innocence, burden of proof, reasonable doubt standards, oral and open proceeding.
- Re-introduciton of jury trial as part of judicial reform proposals under the Merida Initiative (or Plan Mexico)
Sociology & Legal Studies 128I "Race and Law "
Sociology 103a "Statistical Methods "
Sociology 220 "Inequality & Identity" (Graduate Seminar)
Sociology & Legal Studies 128I "Race and Law "
Sociology 220 "Inequality & Identity" (Graduate Seminar)
Sociology & Legal Studies, 128M "International Law & Global Justice"
Sociology 204 "Quantitative Analysis" (Graduate Seminar)
Sociology & Legal Studies, 128J "World Jury on Trial "
List of Courses Taught (Syllabus)
BOOK & SPECIAL JOURNALISSUES :
- Nuclear Tsunami: The Japanese Government and American Role in Fukushima Disaster, Lexington Books (2014, forthcoming) (with Richard Krooth and Morris Edelman).
- East Asia's Renewed Respect for the Rule of Law in the 21st Century: The Future of Legal and Judicial Landscape in East Asia, Brill Academic Publishing (2014, forthcoming) (with Setsuo Miyazawa, Weidong Ji, & Kay-Wah Chan)
- Japan and Civil Jury Trials: The Convergence of Forces, Edward Elgar Publishing (2014, forthcoming) (with Matthew Wilson and Takashi Maruta).
- Race in the Jury Box: Affirmative Action in Jury Selection , 2003, SUNY Press (with Richard Krooth).
- Anatomy of the McMartin Child Molestation Case. 2001, University Press of America (with Edgar W. Butler, Jo-Ellan Huebner-Dimitrius, Richard Krooth), translated into Japanese in 2004 by the Japanese Society for Law and Psychology Library (Makuma-chin Saiban no Shinso, Kitaoji Shobo, eds. by Hideo Niwayama & Kaoru Kurusawa).
- Race and the Jury: Racial Disenfranchisement and the Search for Justice. 1993, Plenum Publishing Corporation (with Edgar W. Butler and Richard Krooth), won the 1994 Human Rights Book Award by Gustavus Myers Center for the Study of Bigotry and Human Rights in North America.
- Common Destiny: Japan and the United States in the Global Age. 1990, McFarland & Company, Inc. (with Richard Krooth).
SPECIAL JOURNAL ISSUES :
- Citizen Participation in Law in Japan and Korea, Yonsei Law Journal, (Volume 3, Number 1, May 2012) (with Valerie Hans).
- The Resurgence of Lay Adjudicatory Systems in East Asia, Asian-Pacific Law and Policy Journal, University of Hawaii, William S. Richardson School of Law (Volume 12, Issue 1, 2010) (with Kay-Wah Chan & Setsuo Miyazawa).
- Introduction to the Special Issue: The Future of Lay Adjudication and Theorizing Today's Resurgence of Civic and Legal Participatory Systems in East and Central Asia, International Journal of Law, Crime, and Justice (Volume 38, Number 4, December 2010) (with Setsuo Miyazawa & Kay-Wah Chan).
- Migration to Baja California: 1900-1980. Center for Inter-American and Border Studies, Border Issues and Public Policy, No 26, 1987 (with Edgar W. Butler, James B. Pick, and Suhas Pavgi).37
- People's Grand Jury Panels and the State's Inquisitorial Institutions: Prosecution Review Commissions in Japan and People's Supervisors in China, 37 Fordham International Law Journal 929 (2014) (with Zhuoyu Wang)
- Proposal to Establish the Federal Civil Grand Jury System in America: Effective Civic Oversight of Federal Agencies and Government Personnel, 3 Journal of Civil and Legan Sciences 1 (2014).
- Okinawa's Citizen Judge Panels vs. U.S. Military Hegemony: Wikileaks' Secret U.S. Cable Document on the Lay Adjudication of American Soldier Criminal Cases in Japan's Saiban-in Trials, 4 International Journal of Okinawan Studies, 2 (2014)
- A Step in the Right Direction for Japan's Judicial Reform, 36 Hastings International Comparative Law Review, 517 (2013).
- Japan's Lay Judges and Why Australia Should Listen Up, East Asia Forum , June 28, 2012
- Seeing is Believing: The Impact of Jury Service on Attitudes Toward Legal Institutions and the Implications for International Jury Reform, 48 Court Review, 124 (2012) (with John Gastil, Kent Anderson, and Mark Nolan)
- Citizen Participation in Civil Disputes in Japan: Saiban-in Application in Civil Litigation (Shikisha-ga-Kataru: Minji Sosho nimo Simin Handan-o), Shinshu-Mainichi Shimbun, August 22, 2012; Kanagawa Shimbun, August 21, 2012.
- Lay Prosecution of U.S. Military Crimes in Japan by Prosecutorial Review Commissions and the Saiban-in Trial, in the Japanese Legal System: An Era of Transition (eds., by Harry N. Scheiber & Tom Ginsburg), 2012.
- Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disasters and the Future of Nuclear Energy Programs in Japan and East Asia, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal, 2012.
- The Future of Lay Adjudication in Korea and Japan, Yonsei Law Journal, 2012 (with Valerie Hans).
- Korea's Two Key Legal Reforms of Lay Adjudication: The Possible Introduction of the Grand Jury (Japan's Prosecutorial Review Commission) System and the Possible Elimination of Consent Requirement to Allow Lay Adjudication of American Military Felons in South Korea, Yonsei Law Journal, 2012.
- Disaster Memories and Other Thoughts on the Fukushima Nuclear Reactors, the Military Industrial Complex, the Ainu, and National Sovereignty, in My Postwar Life (ed., by Elizabeth McKenzie, forward by Karen Tei Yamashita), 2012.
- Wikileak Document & the U.S. Cable on Japan's Quasi-Jury System: Necessity to Re-establish Japan's All Citizen Jury System, Research Group on Jury Trial, 2012
- Japan's Quasi-Jury and Grand Jury Systems as Deliberative Agents of Social Change: De-Colonial Strategies and Deliberative Participatory Democracy, 86 Chicago-Kent Law Review, 789-829 ( 2011).
- Japan's Prosecutorial Review Commissions: Lay Oversight of the Government's Discretion of Prosecution, University of Pennsylvania East Asia Law Review, 2011, 6: 1-42.
- The Establishment of All-Citizen Juries as a Key Component of Mexico’s Judicial Reform: Cross-National Analyses of Lay Judge Participation and the Search for Mexico’s Judicial Sovereignty, Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy,2010, 16: 52- 100 (with Richard Krooth)
- Impact of the Popular Legal Participation on Forced Confessions and Wrongful Convictions in Japan’s Bureaucratic Courtroom: A Cross-National Analysis in the U.S. and Japan, U.S.-China Law Review, 2010, 38: 198-125 (with Kaoru Kurosawa)
- People’s Panel v. Imperial Hegemony: Japan’s Twin Lay Justice Systems and the Future of American Military Bases in Japan and South Korea, Asian-Pacific Law and Policy Journal, 2011, 12: 95-142.
- Introduction to the Special Issue: The Future of Lay Adjudication and Theorizing Today's Resurgence of Civic, Legal Participatory Systems in East and Central Asia , International Journal of Law, Crime, and Justice, 2011, 38: 141-148 (with Setsuo Miyazawa and Kay-Wah Chan)
- Popular Legal Participation in China and Japan, International Journal of Law, Crime, and Justice, 2011, 38: 236-260 (with Zhuoyu Wang)
- What Brings People to the Courtroom? Comparative Analysis of People's Willingness to Serve as Jurors in Japan and the U.S., International Journal of Law, Crime, and Justice, 2011, 38: 236-260 (with Zhuoyu Wang)
- Jury Trial of U.S. Soldier in Okinawa, Editorial, Korea Herald, June 8, 2010
- Establishing Deterrence Against Military Felons in Okinawa Through Lay Adjudication (Beihei hanzai no hadomeni: Okinawa no saiban-in sei ni sekai chumoku), Editorial, Okinawa Times, June 3, 2010
- Is Mexico Ready for a Jury Trial? Comparative Analysis of Lay Justice Systems in Mexico, the U.S., Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, and Ireland, Mexican Law Review (Clark Robert Knudtson and Susan Irene Lopez), 2010, (2) 1: 3-44.
- Comparative Analysis of Popular Legal Participation in Japan and the U.S.: Differential Perceptions of Actual Jurors and College Students on the System of Lay Participation in Law, International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, 2009, 33: 37-59.
- Sennin Tetsuzuki ni oken Ho Shinrigaku (Psychology of Law Applied to Saiban-in (Japan’s Jury) Selection), in Saiban-in Seido to Ho Shinrigaku (The Quasi-Jury System and Psychology and Law, eds. by Yoshinori Okada, et al.), 2009, pp. 82-95.
- Transcommunal Projects to Establish a System of Civic Oversight of the Government: People’s Legal Participation and Power to Check the Government and Its Authority, Transcommunal Cooperation, 2008
- Dick Cheney’s Indictment Signals Need for a Federal Civil Grand Jury, UC Santa Cruz News, 2008, December 5.
- Legal Psychological Research in the Selection of Lay Participants for Jury Duty (Sennin Tetsuzuki ni okeru Ho Shinrigaku), Okada, Yoshinori, Masahiro Fujita, & Makiko Naka, Saiban-in Seido to Ho Shinrigaku (Japan's Lay Assessor System and the Psychology of Law), Tokyo, Japan, Kyousei, 82-95
- Saiban-in Seido (Lay Assessor’s System), Kensatsu Shinsakai (Prosecutorial Review Commission (PRC)), and Okinawa’s Quest for Self-Determination and Political Sovereignty, Okinawan Journal of American Studies, 2008, 5: 31-42.
- The rebirth of Japan's petit quasi-jury and grand jury systems: Cross-national analysis of legal consciousness and lay participatory experience in Japan and the U.S. 2007. Cornell International Law Journal, 40: 315-354.
- Amerika bengonin ni motozuku saibanin seido tetsuzuki deno teian (Suggestions for Japanese Attorneys on How to Prepare Jury Selection for Quasi-Jury Trials). 2007.?Hanrei Taimuzu (Reports on Case Law), 1252: 22-27.
- Kensatsu shinsakai deno juri narifikeshon no susume: Kokumin sihosanka ni yoru shakai henkaku to ishiki kaikaku o mosaku suru (Recommending jury nullification in the deliberation of prosecutorial review commissions) Baishin Saiban (Jury Trial) Baishin Saiban o Kangaeru Kai (Research Group on Jury Trial), 2007, 18: 4-5,7
- Saiban-in seido ni okeru enzai boshi no kanosei: Jihaku chosho ni kansuru saiban-in no ishiki to nin'i-sei to no shototsu (Possibility of preventing wrongful conviction in Japan's quasi-jury system: Quasi-jurors' evaluations of confession documents and quasi-jurors’ evaluations of confessions), 2007. Kikan Keiji Bengo (Quarterly Criminal Defense) Gendai Jinbun Sha 51: 88-96
- Shimin no shihosanka eno hikari to kage: Kensatsu shinsakai to amerika baishin o toshita shimin shiho sanka no kokusai hikaku (Light and shadow of popular legal participation: Cross-national analysis of Japan's prosecutorial review commissions and America. 2006. Kikan Keiji Bengo (Quarterly Criminal Defense) Gendai Jinbun Sha Tokyo, Japan 48 16-20.
- The representative jury requirement: Jury representativeness and cross sectional participation from the beginning to the end of the jury selection process. 2006. Valerie P. Hans, ed. The Jury System: Contemporary Scholarship Ashgate UK.
- Amerika baishin ni kansuru shakai shinrigaku risa-chi to nihon saiban-in seido kenkyu eno kanosei to hokosei (Reviews of socio-psychological research on American juries and the applicability to Japan's new quasi-jury system). 2006. Shinrigaku hyoron (Japanese Psychological Review) Society of Japanese Psychological Review Kyoto, Japan Vol.48, No.3 427-445
- Sennin tetsuzuki no ryuiten to mondaiten (Structural problems in Japan’s quasi-jury selection process). 2005. Quarterly Criminal Defense Journal Gendai Jinbun sha Tokyo, Japan 42 53-57
- Saibankan no Kanyo Saishoni (Minimizing the Judge's Participation for Quasi-jury Deliberatio), Mainichi Shimbun (Mainich Daily Newspaper), 2004, June 2.
- Races People Play: The Theory of Racial Identity Transformation, Genbunken (Journal of Contemporary Culture and Society), 2004, 80 20-39.
- Guaranteeing Racially Mixed Juries, Editorial: Open Forum (with Richard Krooth), San Francisco Chronicle, 2003, October 28, A21
- Daigaku wo Kakuni Chiiki Ittaide Sangyou Kasseika wo (The Regional Formation of Clusters Around University Research Activities) Nikkei Shohihsha Keizai Foramu Kaiho (Japan Economic Newspaper: Consumer Economic Journal), 2003, March, 2-3.
- Embracing affirmative jury selection for racial fairness, Racial Issues in Criminal Justice: The Case of African Americans , 2003, (ed. Marvin D. Free), Westport, Connecticut,: Praeger, pp. 239-253.
- Critical evaluations of Hispanic participation in the Grand jury: Key-man selection, jurymandering, language, and representative quotas, Texas Hispanic Journal of Law and Policy , 2002, 5:7-39.
- Identity, cultural adaptation, and accommodation of a Japanese family living in the United States, Nurturing Success: Successful Women of Color and Their Daughters , 2000, (ed. by Essie E. Lee), Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, pp. 150-156.
- Where did Hispanic jurors go? Copmuter graphics and statistical analysis of Hispanic participation in grand juries in Califorina, 2000, Western Criminology Review , vol. 2, n. 2.
- Social Deconstruction of Race and Affirmative Action in Jury Selection, La Raza Law Journal , 1999, 11:17-68.
- Rethinking the representative jury requirement: Jury representativeness and cross-sectional participation from the beginning to the end of the jury selection process, 1999, International Journal of Applied and Comparative Criminal Justice , 23: 55-90.
- Is O.J. Simpson Verdict an Example of Jury Nullification? Jury Verdicts, Legal Concepts, and Jury Performance in a Racially Sensitive Criminal Case, International Journal of Applied and Comparative Criminal Justice , 1998, 22:185-210.
- A Quota Jury: Affirmative Action in Jury Selection, Journal of Criminal Justice , 1997, 25:477-500.
- Affirmative Action in Jury Selection: Racially Representative Juries, Racial Quotas, and Affirmative Juries of the Hennepin Model and the Jury De Medietate Linguae, Virginia Journal of Social Policy and the Law , (with Darryl Davies) 1997, 4:645-681.
- The ironies of Affirmative Action: UC Students' Views on Fallacies and Problems of Affirmative Action, California Sociologists , (with eight UCSC undergraduate students) 1997, 24:71-88.
- Race, Social Class, Jury Participation: New Dimensions for Evaluating Discrimination in Jury Service and Jury Selection, Journal of Criminal Justice , 1996, 24:71-88.
- Sociologists in Action: The McMartin Sexual Abuse Case, Litigation, Justice, and Mass Hysteria, American Sociologist , (with Edgar W. Butler, and R. Krooth), 1995, 25: 45-72.
- Sources of Racial Disenfranchisement in the Jury and Jury Selection System, National Black Law Journal , 1995, 13(3): 238-275.
- The Rodney King Beating Verdicts. In M. Baldassare, ed., The Los Angeles Riots: Lessons for the Urban Future . Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, pp. 73-102.
- Management of American University Branch Campuses in Japan: Socio-cultural Problems Faced by Texas A&M University in the Rural Japanese Town, Higher Educational Management Journal , 1994, Vol.6, No.2, pp.227-240
Translative Work (English toJapanese)
"Guaranteeing Racially Mixed Juries,",
2003, San Francisco Chronicle, October 28, Editorial: Open Forum, A21
(with Richard Krooth).
Personal Interviews and Other Media
o "The Rebirth of Japan's Petit Quasi-Jury and Grand Jury Systems," presented at the symposium, " Citizen Participation in East Asian Legal Systems," at Cornell University Law School in September 22, 2006 (Video: Check 2nd video)
"In Reform Bid, Japan Opts for Trial by
Jury," 2004, Christian Science Monitor, June 4.
"Racially Mixed juries Would Provide Checks and Balances in Criminal
Justice System, Sociologist Hiroshi Fukurai says,"
2003, UC Santa Cruz Currents Online, October 20.
"Sociologist Testifies About How to Overcome
Racial Bias in Jury Selection," 1997, UC Santa Cruz Currents Online,
- "Saibankan no Kanyo Saisho ni (Minimal
Participation by Japanese Judges)," Mainichi Shimbun (Mainichi
Daily Newspaper), 2003, June 2, p. 4.
- "Kurasuta Tanjo no Joken: Kafirofunia
Daigaku no Ke-su Sutadhi (Pre-conditions for the Creation of
Industrial-University Research Clusters: UC Case Studies)," Urban,
Sakai Urban Policy Institute, Vol. 15, 2003, pp. 76-77.
- "Kokumin no Seifukikan heno chekku ando
baransu (Checks and Balances Against the Governmental Agencies)," Saibanin
Seido ga Yattekuru(Here Comes The Quasi-jury system), 2003, (ed. Osamu
- "Daigaku wo Kakuni Chiiki Ittaide
Sangyou Kasseika wo (The Regional Formation of Clusters Around University
Research Activities)," Nikkei Shohihsha Keizai Foramu Kaiho (Japan
Economic Newspaper: Consumer Economic Journal, 2003, March, pp. 2-3.
- "Hatsugenseki: Matareru Saibanin Seido
Donyu (Introducing Japan's new Quasi-Jury System)," Mainichi
Shimbun (Mainichi Daily Newspaper), 2002, February 4, p. 5.
- "Chekku to Baransu ni Motozuku Nihon
Saibanin-Seido no Koso (Japan's Newly Proposed Quasi-jury System and the
Introduction of Checks and Balances into the Japanese Legal System),"
Ho to Rinri (The Sociology of Law: Law and Ethics), 2002,
- "Hanzai tousei no kanousei (Possibilities of Crime
Control)," Nihon Hanzai Shakaigakukai: Dai 29 kai taikaihoukokuyoushi-Shu(Report
on the 19 Conference of the Japanese Association of Sociological
Criminology), 2002, December, pp.14-16.
- "Chekku ando Baransu wo Kinosaseru
Baisin-Seido (The Jury System and Its Checks-and-Balances
Mechanism)," Hogaku-Seminar (Legal Seminar),
- "Dokuji no Kokuminno Sihosanka-Seido
Kakuritsu to Kokusaishakai no Nihon Hyoka (The Possible Establishment of
Japan's Unique Legal System and Its International Reputation and
Perceptions)," Gekkan Siho Kaikaku (Journal of Judicial
Reform in Japan) 2001:10-13.
- "Seihanzai no Moten (Blindspots in
Sexual Crimes)," Aera Mook: Hanzaigaku ga Wakaru (Introduction
to Criminology), 2001, pp.32-34.
- "Hodo to Baisin (the Media and the Jury
Trials)," Hogaku-Seminar (Legal Seminar) 2000
9:126-130, and 10:132-134.
- "Kensatukan to Baisin-seido (The
Prosecutors and the Jury Trial)," Keiji Bengo (Criminal Defense),
Personal Interviews (in Japanese):
Information (including photos, thanks to Dr. Kaoru Kurosawa and Mr.
Swimming almost everyday - I got a noticeable tan on my
back and hip area
Enjoy tennis, bike riding, and running (not much
recently because of cold and windy weather)
9, 2004 at Yokohama Kaiko Kinennkaikan, giving a presentation on the
McMartin Child Molestation Trial (the book was translated into Japanese in
March 2004, thanks to Dr. Kaoru Kurosawa and Attorney Hideo Niwayama).
2, 2004 as a keynote speaker at Nichibenren Kaikan (Japan Federation of
Lawyers Association) on the introduction of the Saibain-in Seido as a
mechanism of a checks and balances system in Japan.
UC Santa Cruz - Hiroshi Fukurai - October 25, 2007