During the past five million years, two-legged humans evolved from four-legged apes. I want to know how that happened and how our early ancestors lived. To find out, I have done extensive research on the comparative anatomy of humans, apes, and monkeys. From reading earlier works on human evolution, one might get the impression that only male primates evolved. As a woman, I was interested in the role females played in this story, and I have written a great deal on the subject. In the evolution of any species, the course of development of the individual from a single cell to an infant, to a juvenile and an adult is vital to understanding its adaptation and survival. Therefore, the study of immature individuals is as important as the study of adults.

    My goal has been to flesh out the emergence of our species as a dominant force on this planet, using the many scientific tools and concepts now available, not neglecting the human mind as both a creator and a spectator of this ongoing drama.

Adrienne Zihlman
Hominoid Growth and Development

Infant and adult human skulls
Vervet Growth and Development

Debra Bolter
Gibbon Anatomy

Carol Underwood
Sex Differences

Female (left) & male orangutan