There are two "campus guides" that I know of. One is a booklet published in 1973, The Campus Guide: A Tour of the Natural Environment and Point of Historical Interest, written by Elizabeth Spedding Calciano and Ray Collett. There may be an earlier edition too, but in any case, both are out of print. The other is The Natural History of the UC Santa Cruz Campus, edited by Sheridan F. Warrick, 1982. It too is out of print, but sometimes shows up at used bookstores and is available at the Science library. Natural History reprinted the Cowell ranch section of the earlier Campus Guide.

 

The rest of this webpage uses the text from the 1973 Campus Guide and its map. My comments are in blue. Please write if you have additional information.


 

In 1961 the Regents of the University of California purchased 2,OOO acres of land from the S. H. Cowell Foundation. This land, which is now the campus of the University of California, Santa Cruz, was once the middle section of a 10,000 acre ranch. The original portion of this immense ranch (the portion that is now the lower campus) was acquired in 1849 by Albion P. Jordan and Isaac E. Davis, two men who were intent on starting a lime business. Their efforts met with success and over the years they added numerous parcels of land to their ranch. In 1865 Henry Cowell bought out Jordan's share of the ranch and business and in 1888 he purchased the Davis holdings. Cowell continued to add to the Santa Cruz ranch, building it to its 10,000 acre size. Henry Cowell died in 1903; his son Ernest managed the company's affairs until his death in 1911, whereupon S. H. (Harry) Cowell, another son, took over and remained as head of the company until his death in 1955 at the age of 93. He was the last of the Cowell family; in his will he established the S. H. Cowell Foundation.

1. Lowest point on campus: elevation 285 feet.

2. Ranch House. (Now a Provost's residence.) The yellow house near the entrance to the campus was built by Albion Jordan. When Henry Cowell moved in with his wife and five children, he built a sizable addition in the front. The Cowell family made their home here for a number of years during which time the children all attended Bay View School where they were frequently on the honor roll. The family moved to San Francisco in either 1879 or 1897 (authorities disagree). Although the Cowells eventually held extensive properties in 16 counties, the family always considered the Santa Cruz ranch to be the home ranch. After serving as College 5 Provost's house for many years, Cardiff House was used by campus planners as an office, and then as The Womens' Center. The earthquake of 1989 collapsed the fireplace, and thereafter the front room and rear room were had been divided by the fireplace was opened up into one large meeting space. For several years, the Women's Center could be rented and one could enjoy a bath in a very large, claw-footed, wood-trimmed bathtub. After the bathtub was removed for remodeling and stored at the Physical Plant corporation yard, it "disappeared" and never found again. The same mantlepiece of the original fireplace was stolen under the same circumstances.

3. Granary. The Cowell Ranch grew its own oats and barley, both for seed and animal feed. After the threshing, the ranch hands weighed and sacked the grain, storing the sacks in the granary and the hay in the barrl lofts. The big grain fields of the ranch are now becoming covered with brush and trees, save where cattle graze. The Granary has been remodeled an a wing added in the 1980s. It is one of the campus childcare facilities.

4. Stonehouse. As its barred windows suggest, the stonehouse used to be the paymaster's house. For years it was Henry Cowell's custom to pay his men only once a year; the payroll would be brought down from San Francisco, guarded overnight, and distributed to the employees the following day. By the 1890s paydays were once a month and the stonehouse served as the ranch commissary. It carried Levi Strauss work pants, work shirts, and boots, and the men who had families in town could also buy sacks of flour and other staples. From 1970s to mid-90s, the Stonehouse was the campus publications office, publishing mostly City on a Hill, but also Twanas and the Leviathan. I spent many happy hours toiling away in that building, despite the bars on the windows.

5. Horse Barn. In 1968 the University converted this former horse barn into a rustic theater seating 207 people. It is now known as the Barn Theatre.

6. Cookhouse. The Cowell Ranch had several cookhouses; this is the only one on campus property. This cookhouse was used until the early 1950s. Its "equipment" consisted of an old wood stove, a sink, a few tables and chairs, and coal-oil lamps. It had no electricity until after 1949. A small screened building at its southern end served as the meat cooler. A pigsty in front of the building was the garbage disposal. The Cowells kept the cookhouse painted red; all the other ranch buildings were white-washed. The Cookhouse became the offices of the recruitment section of the Admissions office.

First Quarry. The Cookhouse stands on the floor of the earliest quarry on campus. The cuts in the rock are easily seen across the road from the Cookhouse.

Buckeye Tree. A California buckeye clings to the bank of the road just to the northeast of the Cookhouse. Leached buckeye "nuts" were an important item in the diet of many California Indians.

7. Cooperage. In this long building Cowell employees made the barrels used for shipping the processed lime. The cooperage also served as a storage building for the empty and filled barrels. Half of the building was dismantled by the University in 1965 to make way for the improved roadway. A barrelhead mill capable of producing five to seven thousand heads a day stood just west of the Stonehouse. It burned years ago and when the University acquired this property, only the stone foundation remained. The University cleared the site in 1966. Customarily the mill operated only on Saturdays; during the rest of the week the men worked at other tasks on the ranch. The Cooperage is the first and most prominant of the Cowell Ranch buildings. When it was partially dismantled in the 60s when Coolidge was widened, carpenters replaced the open end near the road with original siding so that it did not look so obvious that the building was half its size. When these boards blew out in a storm in 1999, the campus replaced them with modern plywood, and now it looks ridiculous.

8. Limekilns. These kilns, which probably were opened in 1851, "burned" limestone from the Cookhouse quarry. In 1860 Davis and Jordan opened the lower quarry (see 16) and built a horse-drawn tram railroad roughly a mile in length that carried both rock and fuel wood down to the kilns through Jordan Gulch. For decades eight-foot lengths of redwood were used as fuel for the kilns. Around the turn of the century oil replaced wood. The two large round tanks that stored the oil were dismantled in 1965 in order to make way for the road. The Cowell Company stopped using these kilns around 1920, since their task had been taken over by the Rincon kilns, which had been built on the San Lorenzo River in 1908. The major factor in the switchover was that railroad cars could be used to haul oil into the Rincon area. Rincon Road was the route used to haul limestone from the upper quarry to those kilns. Lime burning ceased in 1946, and thereafter the ranch was used exclusively for cattle.

9. Cabins. The ranch workers built these for their sleeping quarters. During the early years of the campus, University planners facetiously referred to them as "married student housing."

10. Blacksmith Shop. During its heyday the ranch employed a full-time blacksmith. The shop itself was used until the early 1950s. The Blacksmith shop is now an art studio.

11. Bull Barn. This barn sheltered the many oxen on the ranch. The Cowells used oxteams for hauling fuel wood and lime; they persisted in using oxen long after other ranches had switched to horses and did not switch from horse teams to trucks until the mid-1920s. The other barns were horse barns. These barns are extensively rebuilt from the inside out and used as shops and offices. Some have been cleverly expanded and the barn architecture adopted for completely new buildings so that the original ranch look is maintained.

12. Carriage House. The Cowells kept their riding horses and carriages in this building; the carriages were housed in the southeast wing where the interior walls were paneled with redwood. The Carriage house became the offices for campus publicity and fundraisers, or as it is currently called "University Relations. The UC Foundation meeting room still keeps its barn-line interior.

13. Powder House. This building dates back to the first lime operations on the ranch; the powder was used to blast rock from the quarries. From the late 1940s until 1961 when the University bought the property, the powder house served as the storage magazine for a local powder company.

14. Great Meadow. The Great Meadow, now a grassland given over to grazing, is chiefly underlain by limestone, a permeable rock through which winter rains drain away very rapidly. This is not to say that the Great Meadow has always been a grassland. During the interval since it rose from the sea, it may have been covered from time to time with brush or broadleaved trees. The location indicator from the 1973 guide shows "the Great meadow" as being in the lower campus, in what was later designated "inclusion area B" and could someday be the site for housing or public buildings. "The Great Meadow" designated in the Long Range Development Plan is between Heller and the treeline to the west and south of University House.

The agricultural history of the Great Meadow is probably lengthy, since the site of Mission Santa Cruz, established in 1791, is just two miles away. It is to be surmised that the early Spanish, following their usual practice, set fire to the campus and surrounding lands and then, so as to increase the pasturage of their herds of cattle, seeded the burned over land with grain (and, inadvertently, with "weeds"). Spanish agriculture in the Great Meadow is further suggested by the plants now growing in it, for nearly all of its grasses and most of its "weeds" are of Mediterranean origin. Much later the Cowells continued to use fire to control brush. Presently brush is controlled by grazing.

The native wildflowers in the Great Meadow, though few, become very evident during the spring. March and April bring California poppies, lupines, pansies, lilac mariposas, shootingstars, blue-eyed grass, owl's clover, evening-primroses, and globe mallows. May and June bring yellow mariposas and several species of brodiaeas.

The University leases the grazing rights to a private company, thereby gaining revenue and substantially reducing the summer fire hazard.

15. Slaughterhouse. The Cowell Company did no commercial butchering on the ranch; this building was used to provide meat for the ranch workers. Roughly one steer a week (always a tough one) was slaughtered here. The barn located next to the slaughterhouse was built in 1972 as part of The Farm.

16. Lower Quarry. (See 8.) When the San Lorenzo River flood control project (through the center of Santa Cruz) was being constructed in the mid-1950s, the lower quarry was "reopened" and used to supply the rock for the project. The Lower Quarry housed the Predatory Bird Research Group which brought the perigrine falcon and many other raptors back from the edge of extinction. The cliffs around the quarry held artificial nests which were tended by PBRG staff and volunteers.

17. Madrone and Coast Live Oaks. A large madrone bearing old fire scars grows near the Field House. Madrones are evergreens with large, glossy leaves. Their bark is red and smooth on all save old trunks and branches. In late fall the red berries attract numbers of birds. Around and about this madrone stands a group of aged coast live oaks.

18. Ancient Sea Cliffs. In geologic time, the campus is not long risen from the sea. Just as waves now cut back the land along West Cliff Drive, waves once cut cliffs in the rock of the campus. Years of exposure have rounded these old cliffs, and streams have cut down through them. Still, a somewhat imaginative observer can look at the lower campus and discern the work of the prehistoric surf. Cowell and Stevenson Colleges stand above an ancient sea cliff. Another such cliff rises above High Street, and several more cross the Great Meadow. Below the campus, a well-preserved cliff rises above Escalona Street. Isotopic dating techniques suggest that the sea stood at the foot of this cliff approximately 110,000 years ago.

19. California Bay. (Also known as pepperwood, California laurel, or Oregon myrtle.) This tree, the only species in its genus, ranges from southern California to southwestern Oregon. It is closely related to the laurel used in ancient Greece and Rome. Crushed bay leaves are strongly pungent and capable of afflicting some people with sudden headaches. Indians and early settlers used preparations of the leaves to treat such ailments as arthritis and nasal and lung complaints. Dried bay leaves are used in cooking. The kernels of the seeds are eaten by many animals, and roasted or parched kernels were eaten by Indians. In southwestern Oregon local craftsmen make the wood into small items of furniture which are sold in wayside stands.

20. Rincon Road. (See 8.)

21. Rincon Springs. On the hillside below Rincon Road several large springs issue water laden with dissolved limestone. Everything in the path of this water is encrusted with a calcareous deposit. In the immediate vicinity, the collapse of underground stream channels has left several gaping holes.

22. Cathedral Rings of Redwoods. One of the many remarkable characteristics of the redwood is its ability to sprout after being felled or burned. The sprouts sometimes grow into "cathedral rings" of new trees completely encircling the old stump. Fine examples are to be seen on the grounds of the colleges.

The central stump of a cathedral ring may have derived, of course, from a peripheral tree of a preceding cathedral ring. Thus the location of a redwood and its number of annual rings may tell very little regarding the time and place of germination of the seed that gave rise to it.

The frequency of vegetative reproduction among redwoods probably accounts in part for the fact that the redwoods of today are remarkably similar to the redwoods of the distant geologic past.

A large concentration of cathedral rings is "Elf Land" along the spring next to College Ten. Although the logging for Colleges Nine and Ten removed some of the rings, and certainly destroyed its remoteness forever, the rings and spring still form a magical area, unlike any other on the campus.

23. Kiln and Upper Quarry. (See 8.) The ruin of a kiln stands on the west end of the upper quarry. Some of the best specimens of Oregon maple on campus are to be seen in the vicinity of this quarry.

24. Kiln. The ruins of a small limestone kiln are preserved just beneath the west end of the bridge on McLaughlin Drive.

25. Limestone Sink. The most spectacular sink hole on campus is located between McLaughlin Drive and Applied Sciences. [Baskin Engineering] This sink hole is the result of the dissolving of the underlying limestone. Several years ago, collapsing rock blocked a cavern entrance near the bottom. The 37th parallel of latitude crosses the campus near this sink.

26. Red Hill Road. The road acquired this name because of the red clay and schist it cuts through. In the years before Empire Grade Road was built, this was the connecting road between Santa Cruz and Bonny Doon.

27. First Campus Fire. This ten-acre area was burned in 1964. Many of the early University employees, including Chancellor McHenry, manned the fire line and brought it under control. The redwoods damaged in the fire are now sending out a dense growth of sprouts along their trunks.

28. Knobcone Pine. A number of large knobcone pines stand amid the chaparral on the upper campus. All are rather scraggly trees, casting a thin shade. Many of them bear, unopened, all of the cones produced in their lifetime.

In the past, the heat of chaparral fires opened the cones of these pines and liberated the winged seeds, which, if they were lucky, came to rest upon freshly cleared land. Now, with the near absence of fire, the population of this species is likely to decrease. Knobcones and many of the species of chaparral beneath them are seldom found so near the coast or in such proximity to redwoods.

29. High Meadow. The stream along the western edge of this meadow is remarkably constant in flow. Several uncommon species of plants occur along its banks. If you're looking for Elf Land, this meadow is just north of it.

30. Dwarf Redwoods. In the vicinity of East Road are to be seen some of the most markedly stunted redwoods on campus. Some of the tiny stumps of felled trees reveal fifty or more rings, which indicates extremelv slow growth, a result perhaps of unfavorable soil conditions or overcrowding. However, it may be that they sprang from the same seed. In support of the latter explanation it can be noted that all of the Douglas firs in the midst of the redwoods are of normal stature. (See also 22.)

31. Giant Chinquapin. The largest of the giant chinquapins on campus stand on the north edge of the Fuel Break to the east of Chinquapin Road. Several of these trees are from sixty to eighty feet tall. The giant chinquapin is uncommon in this part of California and is not known to occur to the south of this campus. Chinquapins are easily known by the yellow fuzz on the underside of the leaves. The nuts of the Chinquapin are said to be tasty, but I could never survive the pain of peeling off the spines.

32. Chinquapin Trail. Harry Cowell was an excellent horseman and enjoyed riding over his ranch property. This was one of his favorite trails.

33. Highest point on campus: elevation 1,195 feet.

34. Oxteam Road. Several hundred feet to the east of Empire Grade a line of tracks remains from one of Cowell's oxteam roads.

35. Gold Mine. Mining in this vicinity began in the nineteenth century and continued into the 1930s. The gold occurred in veins of quartz and in the sand along the streams. Just to the north of campus are numbers of deep, vertical mine shafts, many of which are bridged over with fallen limbs and leaves. No one should venture into the area alone.

36. Watering Trough. The inflowing water is excellent for drinking.

37. Western Yellow Pine. (Also known as ponderosa pine.) Several fine specimens of this tree may be seen in the fringes of the forest surrounding the Indian middens. These pines are part of an isolated stand that stretches, with interruptions, from Bonny Doon to Scotts Valley. This stand is remarkable, for the yellow pine rarely approaches the coast. Farther inland it ranges from British Columbia to central Mexico and eastward to Nebraska, often forming extensive forests. Its abundance and the qualities of its wood make it one of the most important American lumber trees. Yellow pines are on the increase in the northwesternmost corner of the campus, where many seedlings can be seen springing up in the grasslands.

38. Old Privy. This structure, with its underlying pit, is the ruin of a privy. Cowell provided it for Boy Scouts, who for years camped near the Indian middens. This privy is no where to be found in 2001, not surprisingly. There are, however, modern illegal camps just inside the treeline to the north.

39. Indian Middens. The road crossing Marshall Field runs between two Indian middens. These middens are of particular interest to students of anthropology and should not be disturbed by amateurs desirous of souvenirs. Very noticeably, the fine, dark earth of the middens supports several kinds of tall thistles and a number of other plants not to be discovered in the surrounding field. Less noticeably, the middens differ from each other in their composition and in the vegetation growing upon them. The bulk of the material in the middens is probably charcoal, shell, and bone. Marshall Field is also called "Twin Gates." The upper edge of Wilder Ranch begins on the otherside of Empire Grade.

40. Old Rose Bush. In 1862 the area now known as Marshall Field was deeded by Isaac Graham (for whom Graham Hill Road is named) to his daughter Mary Elizabeth Marshall. An old rose clambering in the trees just to the east of Marshall Field is the last visible trace of the occupancy of Mrs. Marshall and her husband Jeremiah. Cowell purchased the land in 1869. In 2001 I found lots of poison oak "clambering" in the trees, but no rose. Perhaps it is still there, but I couldn't find it in late summer.

41. Mounds and Pools. Most of the curious mounds in the northwestern corner of campus are natural geomorphic features. A number of ecologically interesting plants and animals are specially adapted to life in and on the edges of the frequently flooded "hog wallows" between the mounds. Also called "mima mounds."

42. Box Elder. A large California box elder stands just to the east of Seven Springs Trail. Box elders and maples belong to the same genus.

43. Gold Mine. During the late nineteenth century and again in the Depression, several prospectors attempted with varying success to mine gold in the upper portion of Cave Gulch. Their mine shafts, though not yet entirely collapsed, are most assuredly unsafe.

44. High-and-dry Beach. An interrupted zone of shallow sand deposits crosses the campus at an elevation of about 850 feet. In several places in or near the sand it is possible to pick up rounded pebbles, many still highly polished. These pebbles are surely far-removed from their source since they are obviously not ground-down bits and pieces of local bedrock. A small portion of the sand is magnetite, a mineral attracted to magnets. This area is greatly changed by the addition of modern gravel which protects the fireroad. However, near the edges you can still find pebbles from the ancient beach.

45. Azaleas. The particularly beautiful and exceedingly fragrant Western azalea grows in moist thickets on the central and upper portions of the campus. That such numbers of azaleas should be found on campus is unusual, for azaleas are far from common along the central coast and entirely unknown in the Santa Lucia Mountains to the south of Monterey Bay. The blooming season of the Western azalea varies considerably. Most of our plants bloom in March and April, but some occasionally bloom as early as October while others sometimes wait until June. The color of the blooms is variable also. Some are nearly white; others tend to be salmon or pink. This shrub is so prized that two state parks have been created to preserve stands of it: one near Arcata, the other near Brookings, Oregon. The small, shiny-leaved evergreen tree usually growing in the company of the azaleas is the California wax-myrtle.

46. Coon's Cabin. Years ago, a prospector named Coon and a 300-pound friend holed up in this cabin. In 1962 when University personnel first found the cabin, on the wall was an old newspaper dated 1895 bearing the masthead, The San Francisco Examiner, A Weekly Newspaper. In 2001, what I think may be the site of Coon's cabin--given the location on the map--is now a wide spot in an extension of Fuel Break Road down to Empire Grade which wasn't there in '73. The widespot had a recent campfire in it.

47. Tanbark. (Also known as tan-oak.) A very large tanbark tree overhangs Parking Lot 112. The tanbark is the only American species of its genus and ranges from Ventura County to southern Oregon. The bark contains a considerable quantity of tannin. Formerly the large local supply of tanbark encouraged the establishment of a tanning industry. In the 1860s and '70s as many as eight tanneries were in operation in Santa Cruz County.

48. Douglas-fir. A grand, elderly Douglas-fir stands to the west of the dirt road leading from the Natural Sciences Building to University House. The Douglas-fir, which ranges widely in the West, is a most important lumber tree. The dirt road in '73 is the road from Thimann Labs (Natural Sciences I) pass Kerr Hall, and then to Performing Arts and Meyer Dr. The tree is still there, but greatly trimmed back, near the Experimental Theatre.

49. California Hazelnut. (Also known as Western filbert.) Numbers of sizable hazelnut bushes are scattered through the woods near the Library and westward. The campus is one of the southernmost localities in the range of this species. The delicious nuts ripen in late summer, but in most years the crop is sparse. For years hazel wands were gathered on the ranch and used instead of metal hoops in the construction of the barrels made at the cooperage. Men were paid $1.00 or $1.25 per thousand for gathering the "liners," which had to be about six feet long and roughly the size of a man's finger or thumb.

50. Acorn-storing Woodpeckers' Community Tree. The community tree of the local acorn-storing woodpeckers is a large redwood snag overlooking the meadow to the southwest of Kresge College. Much of the dead top of this redwood is studded with acorns. The lower trunk is alive and very great in girth.

51. Interior Live Oak. Probably the finest local specimens of this oak grow on the edge of the Great Meadow to the north of the Student Apartments. This species seldom occurs so close to the coast.

52. Viewpoint. The rise to the south of College V affords a panoramic view of the Salinas Valley, the Santa Lucia Mountains, Monterey Bay, and the Pacific Ocean. The glen to the west is remarkable for its pastoral beauty. Many ancient oaks and madrones follow along the crest of the ridge toward Kresge College. This viewpoint became the site of "The Flying IUD" or "Wave" and symbol of College Five. The construction of College Eight, tennis courts, and Oakes apartments pretty much ruined the view.

53. Blue Elderberry. The largest blue elderberry trees on campus grow near the "pass" in the west bank of the ravine near University House. The bluish berries are edible and are some- times used in pies and jellies, while the flowers are sometimes fried in batter. I have searched for, but never found, elderberries on campus.

54. Limestone Sink. The largest limestone sink on campus, perhaps 100 yards across, is located to the southeast of the intersection of Heller Drive with Empire Grade. In the summer of 1966, a small area in the center settled four or five feet. During the two succeeding winters enough soil washed into the sink to reform a level floor. (See also 25.)

55. Wildflowers. The lilac mariposa, an uncommon wildflower resembling a small tulip, abounds in the southwestern corner of the Great Meadow. The peak of its blooming season occurs in April or May.

56. Old Reservoir. When Santa Cruz passed bonds in 1890 to establish a municipal waterworks, this reservoir was built to serve as the system's main storage facility. Water was piped to it from Laguna and Liddell Creeks. The land was deeded to the city but reverted to the Cowell Company when the city abandoned the reservoir in 1947 or '48. The city relinquished it because it leaked so badly—the underlay of pervious limestone allowed a loss of up to a half million gallons a day. Black cottonwoods and three species of willow grow in the Old Reservoir.

57. The Arboretum started in the summer of 1965 with the planting of a collection of about 80 species of eucalyptus. In recent years many other trees of special horticultural or instructional interest have been added. Years from now the Arboretum will serve to screen the campus from developments on the lower side of Empire Grade.

Wild Animals

Unlike many ranchers, the Cowells refused to allow hunters on their property and during the hunting season had their men patrol the lands. In spite of this, or perhaps because of the challenge involved, a number of local citizens did do a fair amount of hunting here, mainly for deer, but also for quail, rabbits, and other small game.

The most commonly noticed mammals on campus are coastal mule deer (also known as black-tailed deer), striped skunks, raccoons, bobcats, coyotes, gray foxes, jackrabbits, brush rabbits, cottontails, pocket gophers, voles, several species of mouse-like rodents, moles, bats (perhaps of several species), and shrews. Occasionally someone glimpses a weasel or a coati.

In 1966 a badger made occasional appearances near the intersection of Heller Drive and Empire Grade. Years ago badgers were rather common in the local grasslands. From time to time cougars still leave tracks in muddy places in the upper campus roads, and in 1971 a student came upon one while walking along Spring Road.

Until late 1967 Western gray squirrels and Merriam chipmunks were abundant on campus. For several following years they were seldom seen, but now their numbers have increased again. Gray squirrels are often seen scampering around the footbridge between the Library and Central Services.

Rattlesnakes are no longer to be expected on campus, although they still occur in the brushlands and grasslands a short distance to the north. Most of the snakes seen on campus are garter and gopher snakes.

Very many species of migratory birds may be observed on the campus during the right seasons. Two of the most frequently noticed calls are the meadowlark's melodious notes and the "Quick, three beers!" of the olive-sided flycatcher. Non-migratory birds that are likely to attract attention include jays, owls, and hawks.

Despite efforts to control it, poison oak is still abundant on campus. It can often be found adjacent to parking lots, paths, and roadways as well as in the less-frequented parts of the campus. During the spring and summer poison oak is usually told by its leaves, which are composed of three leaflets that have an oily sheen. In late summer or early autumn the leaves frequently turn bright red. They then fall, making the plant more difficult to identify. Some persons are exceedingly sensitive to poison oak and may contract it merely by touching a dog that has ventured into the brush, acquiring some of the oily, toxic principle on its coat. Other persons are quite insensitive. Many other wild plants on campus are poisonous if eaten. Toxic as well as edible fungi are quite abundant on campus and in its immediate vicinity. Over the years a series of fatalities has occurred among local mushroom gatherers, with the most recent in November, 1972.

Native Trees on Campus

Conifers  
Pinus attenuata Knobcone pine
28
Pinus ponderosa Western yellow pine
37
Pseudotsuga Menziesii Douglas Fir
48
Sequoia sempervirens Redwood
22, 30
Broad-leaved evergreens  
Umbellularia californica Bay
19
Arbutus Menziesii Madrone
17
Chrysolepis Chinquapin
31
chrysophylla Lithocarpus densiflora Tanbark
47
Quercus agrifolia Coast live oak
17
Quercus Wislizenii Interior livc oak
51
Myrica californica California wax-myrtle
45
Broad-leaved deciduous trees  
Salix spp. Willow
50
Sambucus mexicana Blue elderberry
53
Populus trichocarpa Black cottonwood
56
Acer macrophyllum Oregon maple
23
Acer Negundo ssp. californccum California box elder
42
Aesculus californica California buckeye
6

References

Berry, William D. and Elizabeth, Mammals of the San Francisco Bay Region, paper, UC Press, 1960.

Blaisdell, Frank L., Santa Cruz in the Early 1900's, ed. Elizabeth Spedding Calciano, Regional History Project, Santa Cruz, 1967.

Bowen, Oliver E., Jr., Rocks and Minerals of the San Francisco Bay Region, paper, UC Press, 1962. California, Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 190, Geology of Northern California, 1966.

Cardiff, George H., Santa Cruz and the Cowell Ranch, 1890–1964, ed. Elizabeth Spedding Calciano, Regional History Project, Santa Cruz,1965.

Dong, John, The Cowell Ranch Cookhouse, ed. Elizabeth Spedding Calciano, Regional History Project, Santa Cruz, 1967.

Ferris, Roxana S., Natiae Shrubs of the San Francisco Bay Region, paper, UC Press, 1968.

Hubbard, Henry G., Mines and Mineral Resources of Santa Cruz County, State Mineralogist's Report 39, no. 1, California Journal of Mines and Geology, January, 1943.

Sharsmith, Helen K., Spring Wildflowers of the San Francisco Bay Region, paper, UC Press, 1965.

Thomas, John Hunter, Flora of the Santa Cruz Mountains, Stan- ford University Press, 1961.

Wagner, Fred, Blacksmithing and Life in the Santa Cruz Area, 1890–1930, ed. Elizabeth Spedding Calciano, Regional History Project, Santa Cruz, 1966.

Watts, Tom, California Tree Finder, paper, Nature Study Guild, Berkeley, 1963.

Wolff, Adalbert, The Cowell Ranch, 1915, ed. Elizabeth Spedding Calciano, Regional History Project, Santa Cruz, 1972.

Note: Regional History Project volumes are available for in-library use at the Special Collections Room of the UCSC University Library and at Bancroft Library, Berkeley.

Many people contributed information used in this guide, but special thanks are owed to Claude Lazarotti, a lifelong resident of the Cave Gulch area, who spent many hours answering the authors' questions about the Cowell Ranch lands.